Version 199 (modified by dcf, 5 years ago) (diff)

Enabled #13171 on meek-google.

meek is a pluggable transport, an obfuscation layer for Tor designed to evade Internet censorship. Traffic is relayed through a third-party server that is hard to block, for example a CDN. It uses a trick called domain fronting to talk to a Tor relay while appearing to talk to another domain.

Quick start

Download Tor Browser or Tor Messenger:

Extract and run it, and then configure these settings:

  1. Configure on the first screen.
  2. Yes to Does your Internet Service Provider (ISP) block or otherwise censor connections to the Tor Network?
  3. Connect with provided bridges and select meek-amazon, meek-azure, or meek-google from the Transport type box. They all work about the same; you can pick any of them. If one doesn't work, try another.
  4. No to Does this computer need to use a proxy to access the Internet?, unless you know you need to use a proxy. Then click Connect.

Tor Browser 7.5.3 settings screen 1 Tor Browser 7.5.3 settings screen 2 7.0.5 settings screen 3 7.0.5 settings screen 4

Howtos in other languages:

To build from source:

git clone
cd meek/meek-client
export GOPATH=~/go
go get
go build
tor -f torrc

FreeBSD port:


meek uses a technique called "domain fronting" to send a message to a Tor relay in a way that is hard to block. Domain fronting is the use of different domain names at different communication layers. The meek-client program builds a special HTTPS request and sends it to an intermediate web service with many domains behind it, such as a CDN. What's special about the request is that one domain name (the "front domain") appears on the "outside" of the request—in the DNS query and SNI—and a different name appears on the "inside"—in the HTTP Host header. The censor sees the outside name but the CDN sees the inside name, and forwards the request to the meek-server program running on a Tor bridge. meek-server decodes the body of the request and feeds the data into Tor.

Domain fronting and meek work when the censor blocks some domains of a web service but not all of them. Some examples of fronting-capable services are Google, CloudFront, and others.

Redrawn diagram, no longer Google-specific. (SVG source)

See A Child's Garden of Pluggable Transports for details of how the protocol looks at the byte level, both at the TLS layer (the part visible to a censor), and at the HTTP layer (the invisible layer that carries the data).

How to change the front domain


You can change the front domains used by the default bridge lines. The default bridge lines can be found at:

Copy a bridge line and change the front= part to another domain on the same CDN.

See What to do if meek gets blocked.

Network Settings panel showing show to enter a custom front domain.

Other domain fronting systems

meek is just one of several circumvention systems using domain fronting. You can read about the technique in general here.

Psiphon uses domain fronting in some places. It has a fork of meek-client and meek-server as well as a port of meek-client to Java for Android.

Flashlight from Lantern is an HTTP proxy that users domain fronting. enproxy is a TCP-over-HTTP tunnel.

FireFly Proxy is a meek-like proxy implemented in Python. It is designed against the Great Firewall of China.

GoAgent has been used to evade the Great Firewall of China for several years. It uses domain fronting on App Engine. It is only an HTTP and HTTPS proxy; the client software sends your requested URLs to App Engine, and then the request is issued directly from the App Engine servers.

Web services

Here are some web services that support domain fronting. We have been testing potential fronting services mostly through manual testing and Wget commands.

Not all of the listed services are deployed. The ones you can currently use with Tor are:

See also's list of mirrors, which, while they aren't using domain fronting, are hosted on the same kind of high-collateral-damage services. sitescanner automatically tests domain names for CloudFlare support.

Google App Engine

$ wget -O - -q --header 'Host:'
I’m just a happy little web server.

Google App Engine is web application hosting on Google's infrastructure. The front domain can be any Google domain, as far as I can tell, from to to A list of Google domains that could be potentially used as front domains.

There are quotas for unpaid apps:

You can pay to get higher quotas:

The cost is $0.12 per gigabyte, with 1 gigabyte free each day. There are other potential ancillary costs, having to do with things like how often your app is reloaded.

You can get a faster CPU and more RAM, at the cost of using up more instance hours (instance hours cost money).

Code for the App Engine reflector is in the appengine directory of the source code. See README for how to set it up.

Amazon CloudFront

$ wget -q -O - --header 'Host:'
I’m just a happy little web server.

CloudFront is a CDN. Your files are hosted on a generated domain name that looks like All these domains support HTTPS with a wildcard cert for *, and they can front for each other.

There is a free tier, good for a year, that limits you to 50 GB per month. Per-request pricing differs by client country. Per-gigabyte costs go down the more you transfer, with a maximum of $0.19 per gigabyte. Bandwidth costs to the origin server (i.e., the Tor bridge) are lower. There's an additional cost of about $0.01 per 10,000 requests.

CloudFront allows you to use your own TLS domain name for an extra charge, but that appears to put you on a certificate with a bunch of shared SANs, which can't front for domains on different certificates.

The FAQ suggests that non-cacheable, dynamic traffic is fine.

  1. Does Amazon CloudFront support delivery of dynamic content? Amazon CloudFront supports all files that can be served over HTTP. This includes dynamic web pages, such as HTML or PHP pages, any popular static files that are a part of your web application, such as website images, audio streams, video streams, media files or software downloads. For on-demand media files, you can also choose to stream your content using RTMP delivery. Amazon CloudFront also supports delivery of live media over HTTP.
  2. Does Amazon CloudFront cache POST responses? Amazon CloudFront does not cache the responses to POST, PUT, DELETE, OPTIONS, and PATCH requests – these requests are proxied back to the origin server.

There's a question of what to use as the front domain. Any particular * name could be individually blockable. The generic names and don't resolve. Maybe pick one with a lot of collateral damage? Or a few, and randomly choose between them? Or connect to an IP, rather than a domain (#12208). Alexa has a list of the most popular domains ("Where do visitors go on"), which starts out: 	14.67% 	6.06% 	2.72% 	2.26% 	2.09%

There's a list of CNAMES that point to an example subdomain. It appears that GFW blacklists (through DNS poisoning) *, but some names are whitelisted including and (9gag). has a list of blocked subdomains.

The names,, and look promising. I found them in the source of

Here are instructions on setting up CloudFront. Read Skip step 2, which is about uploading your files to S3 (all our data comes straight from the Tor relay). Change settings as follows:

  • Origin Domain Name: the domain where meek-server is running.
  • Origin Protocol Policy: Use "HTTP Only" for HTTP communication between CloudFront and meek-server, or "Match Viewer" for HTTPS.
  • HTTP Port and HTTPS Port: the listening ports of the server.
  • Viewer Protocol Policy: "HTTPS Only". This setting is important, even if you picked "HTTP Only" for Origin Protocol Policy.
  • Allowed HTTP Methods: "GET, HEAD, PUT, POST, PATCH, DELETE, OPTIONS". It won't work without this (specifically POST is needed).
  • Forward Headers: "Whitelist" and then add the custom header "X-Session-Id". HTTPS to the origin won't work if you choose "All" because the forwarded Host header will interfere with certificate verification (comment:2:ticket:13174).
  • Forward Query Strings: "Yes". Actually this one doesn't matter because meek doesn't use query strings.

Picture of CLoudFront configuration screen.

You will get a domain name like Wait about 15 minutes for it to start to resolve. Set up torrc like so:

ClientTransportPlugin meek exec ./meek-client --url= --log meek-client.log

You can front with a different * domain.

ClientTransportPlugin meek exec ./meek-client --url= --log meek-client.log

Microsoft Azure

$ wget -q -O - --header 'Host:'
I’m just a happy little web server.

Azure is a cloud computing platform with a CDN.

Pricing is $0.12 to $0.19 per GB (depending on geographical region), getting less for higher volumes.

Their wildcard HTTPS domain seems to be * might be a good front. I've also seen HTTPS Everywhere rules for All these fronting commands work:

wget --no-check-certificate --header 'Host:'
wget --header 'Host:'
wget --no-check-certificate --header 'Host:'
wget --header 'Host:'

Additionally I found

Microsoft is accepting research proposals. If the proposal is accepted, you get access to Azure including the CDN for a year.

There's also a 1-month trial.

Here's how to set up Azure. Log in at From the main screen, click New→App Services→CDN→Quick Create. Under "Origin Type" select "Custom Origin" and then enter the URL to the meek-server host in the "Origin URL" box. Click "Create". Once the CDN endpoint is created, click on it and click "Enable HTTPS" at the bottom. It really does take about an hour before it starts working. Now you have an domain name that points to meek-server and you can front to it with any other Azure CDN domain such as


$ wget --no-check-certificate -q -O - --header 'Host:' | grep -io '<title>.*</title>'
<title>The New York Times - Breaking News, World News &amp; Multimedia</title>
$ wget --no-check-certificate -q -O - --header 'Host:' | grep -io '<title>.*</title>'
(However these don't work for some reason; they go to the SNI name.)
$ wget --no-check-certificate -q -O - --header 'Host:' | grep -io '<title>.*</title>'
<title>The New York Times - Breaking News, World News &amp; Multimedia</title>
$ wget --no-check-certificate -q -O - --header 'Host:' | grep -io '<title>.*</title>'

(I use --no-check-certificate because the certificate isn't trusted by Wget, but it's okay in Firefox.)

Akamai is a CDN.

HTTPS Everywhere rule for I don't know what's so special about the name. For example, a247 and a249 exist, but the certificate they serve is only good for "*", "*", and "". This paper describes the structure of Akamai URLs; some of it is driven by historical use when browsers didn't send Host or SNI.

The name started being blocked (DNS poisoned) in China in late September 2014: (See also for all domains.)

It might be easier and cheaper to get Akamai through a reseller. For example Liquid Web posts a price list, $100/month for up to 1000 GB. This blog post describes how to use WordPress with the Liquid Web CDN. In that example they use a custom CNAME,, which for me has the reverse DNS I can grab an HTTPS version of the blog while fronting through

$ wget --no-check-certificate -q -O - --header 'Host:' | grep -io '<title>.*</title>'
<title>jgillman&#039;s Liquid Web Update</title>

However, Liquid Web's terms of service prohibit proxy servers:

We do not allow proxy servers of any kind, whether for personal or business use. Files with references to any proxy or likeness thereof are prohibited.

Cache Simple (formerly Distribution Cloud) is another Akamai reseller. Their pricing starts at $50/month for 100 GB. They want you to sign a contract with a confidentiality clause when you sign up.

Rackspace offers Akamai access with SSL support through their Cloud Files service. The domain you get looks like "", and you can front it through

$ wget --no-check-certificate --header 'Host:'

However, the CDN only works for static files hosted through Cloud Files. They don't support the "origin pull" service we need.

HP Cloud uses Akamai. But they have the same problem as Rackspace: it's only static files from HP Cloud Object Storage.


Fastly is a CDN, being used by the meek-like transports of Psiphon and Lantern. It apparently requires you to front without a SNI, only an IP, because their frontend server checks the SNI against the Host, and sends a 400 response if they don't match. Both other projects had to fork an HTTPS library to make it possible.

You can get an idea of some of their domains by looking at the certificate for Shared SSL hosting appears to be on subdomains of,, or

$ wget
Resolving (
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
$ wget --header 'Host:'
Resolving (
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 400 Bad Request
$ wget --no-check-certificate --header 'Host:'
The certificate's owner does not match hostname ‘’
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK

Pricing is a minimum $50 per month, and $0.12–0.19 per GB for the first 10 TB per month. There's an additional charge per 10,000 requests.

Level 3

Level 3 is a tier-1 network operator and also has a CDN.

VPS.NET is a reseller of the Level 3 CDN (formerly they had a deal with Akamai). Pricing is pay-as-you-go, not per-month; in other words we can buy a TB and not pay more until it's used up. The first TB is $35 and after that it's $250.

CloudVPS is another reseller. There's no extra charge over the normal VPS fee, but they say:

"The maximum free throughput of the CDN is 100 Megabit per second (Mbit/sec). Traffic above 100 Mbit/sec will be billed at our normal traffic pricing. Contact us if you plan to use the CDN for large amounts of traffic." "The free CloudVPS CDN cannot be used for SSL delivery. Contact us if you want to speed up SSL traffic using the CDN."

It's not clear yet whether fronting works. I found some customer domains from, but I couldn't make them work.

Level 3 is suspected of collaborating with the NSA, so there's that.

Level 3's CDN naming seems to revolve around the domain. While HTTP requests do appear to be fronted, attempts to retrieve content from other hosts over SSL were unsuccessful. An example can be found with:

openssl s_client -servername -tlsextdebug -msg -connect
GET / HTTP/1.1

HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden
Server: Footprint 4.10/FPMCP
Mime-Version: 1.0
Date: Sun, 24 Aug 2014 21:59:00 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 526
Expires: Sun, 24 Aug 2014 21:59:00 GMT
Connection: close

...'s certificate is returned, but we see a Footprint originating error of "Invalid Protocol." Tried this with a few domains under Level 3, to no avail.

Despite that domain fronting seems not to work, we might be able to get the same effect from the URL structure of the domain. For example, there is a Free Weibo mirror at It appears we can get a path under the domain. is currently DNS poisoned by GFW. doesn't work (HTTP 403) as of 2015-08-28.


See whether these services support fronting or not.

HostGator et al.?

Cheap web hosts like HostGator sometimes offer shared SSL. For example HostGator puts you on a name like You can probably front through those. In this case, you would run a PHP reflector (#10984) on the web host in order to reach a relay.


GreatFire has some mirrors on EdgeCast, for example

Starting November 12, 2014, is blocked by GFW.

Web services that appear not to work

Someone tried these and it looks like the domain fronting trick doesn't work.


CloudFlare is a CDN. You use your own domain name. TLS is terminated at CloudFlare's server.

There are different pricing plans. The cheapest one that supports SSL is Pro, for $20 per month. Business is $200 and Enterprise averages $5,000. There's no per-gigabyte bandwidth charge.

CloudFlare now matches the SNI and Host header when both exist.

CloudFlare used to work for domain fronting, but does not anymore since September 2015 (comment:2:ticket:14256).


DreamHost's Shared Hosting can easily be used as a reflector using PHP, but according to their "Secure Hosting" page, they don't offer shared SSL; for SSL you have to pay for your own real cert.

They have a storage service (I'm guessing S3-like) called Dream Objects, but it's only for static files. The URLs they give are good though, like

How to run a meek-server (bridge)

  • Compile the program using go build.

NOTE: if you want to run your bridge on two different ports (HTTP and HTTPS), use something like this:

ServerTransportPlugin meek exec /usr/local/bin/meek-server --port 7002 --disable-tls --log /var/log/tor/meek-server.log
ServerTransportPlugin meek exec /usr/local/bin/meek-server --port 7443 --cert /etc/meek/cert.pem --key /etc/meek/key.pem --log /var/log/tor/meek-server-https.log
  • To test your bridge on the clinet side, you can add a line like this to your torrc:

Bridge meek url=

Important Note:

If you're running more than one transports, you need a separate tor process for each to avoid user counting confusion. See and #Users for more information.

Link to metrics.

Changelog of the meek bridge:

  • ca. 2014-02 Installed meek-server on bridge already hosting websocket-server for flash proxy.
  • 2014-05-08 Migrated and reinstalled bridge, still running both flash proxy and meek.
  • ca. 2014-07-28 Enabled meek-amazon.
  • 2014-09-15 Split flash proxy and meek into separate processes in order to avoid user counting confusion. Everything before that is baloney.
  • 2014-09-16 Switched meek-amazon to HTTPS (#13174).
  • 2014-09-29 Changed the bridge backing meek-amazon.
  • 2014-10-14 Enabled PublishServerDescriptor on the meek-amazon bridge. Between 09-29 and 10-14, meek-amazon users were not being counted; see here.
  • 2014-10-15 Tor Browser 4.0 released with support for meek built in and adding meek-azure.
  • 2014-10-25 Changed the bridge backing meek-google. Upgraded the meek-google App Engine instance to F2 class.
  • 2014-10-27 Changed meek-google back to F1 class because the costs got close to the daily limit I set.
  • 2014-10-31 Changed meek-google to F2 again.
  • 2014-11-08 Changed meek-google back to F1.
  • 2014-11-15 Moved meek-google bridge to better hardware.
  • 2015-02-28 Altered performance settings on App Engine in an effort to reduce instance hours. Set max idle instances to 4 and min pending latency to 500 ms.
  • 2015-04-08 Implemented persistent connections for meek-azure, increasing performance.
  • 2015-04-15 Tor Weekly News covers the meek-azure performance improvement.
  • 2015-05-22 Rate-limited the meek-google bridge to 1.5 MB/s.
  • 2015-06-02 Further rate-limited meek-google to 1.1 MB/s.
  • 2015-06-08 Rate-limited the meek-amazon bridge to 1.1 MB/s.
  • 2015-07-20 Outage of meek-azure.
  • 2015-07-22 Published workaround for meek-azure outage.
  • 2015-08-14 End of meek-azure outage.
  • 2015-09-23 Upgraded meek-azure bridge from KVM to Xen.
  • 2015-09-30 Outage of meek-amazon caused by an expired certificate.
  • 2015-10-02 Rate-limited the meek-azure bridge to 1.1 MB/s. (Azure grant expired.)
  • 2015-10-09 End of meek-amazon outage.
  • 2015-10-30 Altered performance settings on App Engine. Set max idle instances to 2 and min pending latency to 1000 ms. This used to be configured through the web interface but is now configured in an application file. Some time ago, I don't know when, this change caused my settings from 2015-02-28 to be forgotten.
  • 2015-10-30 Further rate-limited the meek-azure bridge to 0.8 MB/s.
  • 2015-12-14 Enabled client IP statistics (comment:7:ticket:13171) on the meek-azure bridge.
  • 2015-12-20 Enabled client IP statistics (ticket:13171) on the meek-google bridge.


Barriers to indistinguishability

  1. TLS ciphersuites
    Look like a browser. #4744 has the story of when tor changed its ciphersuite list to look like Firefox's in 2012. tor's list of ciphers is in src/common/
  2. TLS extensions
    Look like a browser.
  3. Packet lengths
    Do something to break up fixed-length cells.
  4. Interpacket times
  5. Upstream/downstream bandwidth ratio
  6. Polling interval
    When we have nothing to send, we start polling at 100 ms, and increase the interval by 50% every time no data is received, up to a maximum of 5 s. The growth pattern and the fixed cap is detectable.
    Here's what the fixed polling of 5 s looks like in the GNOME system monitor:
    Screenshot of the GNOME system monitor showing the 5 s polling interval of meek 0.1.
  7. Maximum payload lengths
    Payloads are limited to 65536 bytes. During bootstrapping and bulk downloads, a lot of bodies have exactly this size.
  8. Behavior on random drops
    Suppose the censor drops every hundredth connection to Normal web users will just refresh; meek's stream will be broken.
  9. Number of simultaneous requests
    Browsers open many parallel connections to the same server; I think meek 0.4 opens just one.
  10. Extra latency
    The latency between the client and the front domain is likely to be measurably different from the latency between the client and the real destination.

Working in our advantage is that we are likely to be transporting web traffic, so we inherit some of its traffic characteristics.

How to look like browser HTTPS

We decided to use a browser extension to make all the HTTPS requests required by meek, so that the requests look just like those made by a browser. There's an extension for Firefox (which works with Tor Browser, so it can work in the browser bundle without shipping a second browser) and one for Chrome. The list below is a summary of a discussion that took place on the tor-dev mailing list and on IRC.

Sample client hellos

A big list of client hellos from different applications was moved to meek/SampleClientHellos.

Here is a diff of the client hellos of Firefox 31.2.0 and Tor Browser 4.0.2 with meek-http-helper, a browser extension that proxies the requests of meek-client. The only difference is in the client randomness.

--- firefox	2014-12-06 18:06:47.182981935 -0800
+++ meek-http-helper	2014-12-06 18:09:20.670121187 -0800
@@ -1,111 +1,111 @@
 Secure Sockets Layer
     SSL Record Layer: Handshake Protocol: Client Hello
         Content Type: Handshake (22)
         Version: TLS 1.0 (0x0301)
         Length: 176
         Handshake Protocol: Client Hello
             Handshake Type: Client Hello (1)
             Length: 172
             Version: TLS 1.2 (0x0303)
-                GMT Unix Time: Mar  8, 2036 08:41:05.000000000 PST
-                Random Bytes: 80df1ee294a6ac4ce0f6d65a4b3e3841a5cb34fd6917e167...
+                GMT Unix Time: Jan  4, 2007 11:03:42.000000000 PST
+                Random Bytes: c00298971bdc13e49273d6966ef5bc246ddd67e508b9bc6d...
             Session ID Length: 0
             Cipher Suites Length: 46
             Cipher Suites (23 suites)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 (0xc02b)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 (0xc02f)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA (0xc00a)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA (0xc009)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA (0xc013)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA (0xc014)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA (0xc012)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA (0xc007)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA (0xc011)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA (0x0033)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA (0x0032)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA (0x0045)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA (0x0039)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA (0x0038)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA (0x0088)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA (0x0016)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA (0x002f)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA (0x0041)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA (0x0035)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA (0x0084)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA (0x000a)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA (0x0005)
                 Cipher Suite: TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5 (0x0004)
             Compression Methods Length: 1
             Compression Methods (1 method)
                 Compression Method: null (0)
             Extensions Length: 85
             Extension: server_name
                 Type: server_name (0x0000)
                 Length: 19
                 Server Name Indication extension
                     Server Name list length: 17
                     Server Name Type: host_name (0)
                     Server Name length: 14
                     Server Name:
             Extension: renegotiation_info
                 Type: renegotiation_info (0xff01)
                 Length: 1
                 Renegotiation Info extension
                     Renegotiation info extension length: 0
             Extension: elliptic_curves
                 Type: elliptic_curves (0x000a)
                 Length: 8
                 Elliptic Curves Length: 6
                 Elliptic curves (3 curves)
                     Elliptic curve: secp256r1 (0x0017)
                     Elliptic curve: secp384r1 (0x0018)
                     Elliptic curve: secp521r1 (0x0019)
             Extension: ec_point_formats
                 Type: ec_point_formats (0x000b)
                 Length: 2
                 EC point formats Length: 1
                 Elliptic curves point formats (1)
                     EC point format: uncompressed (0)
             Extension: SessionTicket TLS
                 Type: SessionTicket TLS (0x0023)
                 Length: 0
                 Data (0 bytes)
             Extension: next_protocol_negotiation
                 Type: next_protocol_negotiation (0x3374)
                 Length: 0
             Extension: status_request
                 Type: status_request (0x0005)
                 Length: 5
                 Certificate Status Type: OCSP (1)
                 Responder ID list Length: 0
                 Request Extensions Length: 0
             Extension: signature_algorithms
                 Type: signature_algorithms (0x000d)
                 Length: 18
                 Signature Hash Algorithms Length: 16
                 Signature Hash Algorithms (8 algorithms)
                     Signature Hash Algorithm: 0x0401
                         Signature Hash Algorithm Hash: SHA256 (4)
                         Signature Hash Algorithm Signature: RSA (1)
                     Signature Hash Algorithm: 0x0501
                         Signature Hash Algorithm Hash: SHA384 (5)
                         Signature Hash Algorithm Signature: RSA (1)
                     Signature Hash Algorithm: 0x0201
                         Signature Hash Algorithm Hash: SHA1 (2)
                         Signature Hash Algorithm Signature: RSA (1)
                     Signature Hash Algorithm: 0x0403
                         Signature Hash Algorithm Hash: SHA256 (4)
                         Signature Hash Algorithm Signature: ECDSA (3)
                     Signature Hash Algorithm: 0x0503
                         Signature Hash Algorithm Hash: SHA384 (5)
                         Signature Hash Algorithm Signature: ECDSA (3)
                     Signature Hash Algorithm: 0x0203
                         Signature Hash Algorithm Hash: SHA1 (2)
                         Signature Hash Algorithm Signature: ECDSA (3)
                     Signature Hash Algorithm: 0x0402
                         Signature Hash Algorithm Hash: SHA256 (4)
                         Signature Hash Algorithm Signature: DSA (2)
                     Signature Hash Algorithm: 0x0202
                         Signature Hash Algorithm Hash: SHA1 (2)
                         Signature Hash Algorithm Signature: DSA (2)

Style guide

The word "meek" should be written in lower case, even when it is the first word in a sentence. Exception: when it is the last word in a sentence, it should be in ALL CAPS. When printed on glossy paper, the word should be followed by a ™ symbol; when handwritten, decisively underlined. Exception to everything: if it is the nth appearance of "meek" in a document, and n is the description number of a non-halting Turing machine, then write "𝕸𝕰𝕰𝕶" in honor of Alan Turing and/or Sublime.


Make bundles featuring meek
PHP relay for meek
Make an HTTP requestor Firefox extension for meek-client
Create meek repo
Make an HTTP requestor Chrome extension for meek-client
Include meek in userstats-bridge-transport
Move meek's URL and front configuration into bridge_prefs.js
Upgrade meek to 0.11
meek profile error after browser restarts (e.g., after update or add-on installation)
Use security.ssl.disable_session_identifiers pref in meek-http-helper to restore TLS session tickets
Upgrade meek to 0.15
Upgrade meek to 0.16
Upgrade meek to 0.17
Meek doesn't start in Tor Browser 4.5 on Windows 7
Upgrade meek to 0.18
Windows: staged update fails if Meek is enabled
Updating to 4.5.1 sets DisableNetwork
Use new CDN endpoint for meek-azure
Enable network.http.spdy.* prefs in meek-http-helper for a matching TLS fingerprint
Figure out what happens when a user's chosen transport is removed from bridge_prefs.js in an update
Update the meek-amazon fingerprint to B9E7141C594AF25699E0079C1F0146F409495296
Error console complaining it can't find meek helper
Don't trust "bridge-ips" blindly for user number estimates
meek is broken in Tor Browser 6.0a3
Mac OS: wrong location for meek browser profile
"Tor circuit for this site" labels meek bridge as being in China
meek fails on macOS 10.12 when built with Go 1.4.3 or Go 1.6.3
Upgrade meek to 0.24
Unexplained drop in meek users, 2016-10-19 to 2016-11-10
Figure out how to sandbox meek in a sensible way.
Move meek-azure to the backend and cymrubridge02 bridge.
Stop the Meek Tor Browser opening links or documents on macOS
Move meek-amazon to the backend
Add some IP-HOST pair for meek use
update to a newer Meek tag
Tor not reading torrc-defaults when started from command line, while it reads it successfully when started from Tor Browser
remove meek-amazon from the Tor Browser
Problem running meek server without CDN, stuck at Performing bandwidth self-test...done
Obfs4 stopped working 16 Sept 18
Remove obsolete prefs from meek-http-helper-user.js
Use uTLS for meek TLS camouflage in Tor Browser
Work around lack of app.update.enabled pref in Firefox 63+
meek and moat are broken on macOS 10.9 with the switch to Go 1.12
clean up the old meek http helper browser profiles
replace meek_lite with meek in circuit display
Tor Browser 8.5.5 Encounters Javascript problem when attempting to use Meek-Azure bridges
Tor does not work with meek-azure or snowflake bridges
Meek-Azure and SnowFlake are still broken

Cannot specify custom meek bridges
Improve semantics for pluggable transports with dummy addresses
Meek and ReachableAddresses
Tor is stuck at "Loading Network Status"

Attachments (20)

Download all attachments as: .zip